Lutetium hafnium dating

lutetium hafnium dating

Is lutetium a radioactive element?

Lutetium is a rare-earth element, with one naturally-occurring stable isotope 175 Lu and one naturally-occurring radioactive isotope 176 Lu. When 176 Lu atoms are incorporated into earth materials, such as rocks and minerals, they began to be trapped while starting to decay.

How often is lutetium made?

Occurrence and production. The world production of lutetium (in the form of oxide) is about 10 tonnes per year. Pure lutetium metal is very difficult to prepare. It is one of the rarest and most expensive of the rare earth metals with the price about US$10,000 per kilogram, or about one-fourth that of gold.

What is the half life of lutetium 176?

Lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant (2.5%) radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, used to determine the age of minerals and meteorites. Lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions.

What is hafnium used for in geochemistry?

Isotopes of hafnium and lutetium (along with ytterbium) are also used in isotope geochemistry and geochronological applications, in lutetium-hafnium dating. It is often used as a tracer of isotopic evolution of Earths mantle through time.

What is the isotope of lutetium?

Lutetium is also found in the products of nuclear fission. Natural lutetium consists of two isotopes: stable lutetium-175 (97.4 percent) and radioactive lutetium-176 (2.6 percent, 3.76 × 10 10 -year half-life ). The radioactive isotope is used to determine the age of meteorites relative to that of Earth.

Why is lutetium present in ppm levels in most rocks?

It is present in ppm levels in most rocks because few minerals, such as garnet, can accommodate significant amounts of it. Lutetium has one stable isotope, 175 Lu, and one radioactive isotope, 176 Lu.

What is the half life of lutetium 176?

Lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant (2.5%) radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, used to determine the age of minerals and meteorites. Lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions.

Can lutetium be used as a catalyst?

However, stable lutetium can be used as catalysts in petroleum cracking in refineries and can also be used in alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization applications. Lutetium aluminium garnet ( Al5Lu3O12) has been proposed for use as a lens material in high refractive index immersion lithography.

What is hafnium?

Hafnium is a chemical element with the symbol Hf and atomic number 72. A lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in many zirconium minerals. Its existence was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, though it was not identified until 1923, by Coster and Hevesy, ...

What is hafnium isotope geochemistry?

Isotope geochemistry. In most geologic materials, zircon is the dominant host of hafnium (>10,000 ppm) and is often the focus of hafnium studies in geology. Hafnium is readily substituted into the zircon crystal lattice, and is therefore very resistant to hafnium mobility and contamination.

What is a hafnium getter and how is it used?

Hafnium can be used as a getter for many inflation systems. The hafnium getter can remove unnecessary gases such as oxygen and nitrogen present in the system. In addition, hafnium has strong anti-volatility, and is often used as an additive for hydraulic oil to prevent the volatilization of hydraulic oil during high-risk operations.

Why is hafnium used as a control rod?

This means that each hafnium atom has a high affinity for undergoing neutron absorption when in a neutron flux. Because of this, hafnium was selected as the material for the majority of control rods used in the United States. Hafnium is formed into a blade which is then attached to a control rod. Each control rod may have more than one blade.

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